I’m using the Roseta Theme and the featured image and post title do not show up for posts listed after the “More Posts” button on mobile versions of my site. All posts above this sections show up fine. The desktop version doesn’t have this issue but the posts do not show up correctly on mobile versions.
In case you use some caching/minifying/optimization/CDN plugin, I suggest temporarily turning that off to check if it has anything to do with the reported issue.
Do note that mobile browsers cache aggressively and you’ll have to refresh repeatedly (or use private/incognito modes) to actually make them clear cache.